Presence of epithelial cells in urine is an indication of some problem with your health. This may indicate a case of diabetes mellitus, different forms of glomerulonephritis, or a chronic infection in urinary tract. By analyzing a sample of urine, crucial information bad taste in mouth pertaining to the health of an individual can be found out. Standard urine has many properties like clarity, color, presence of sediments, pH value etc. and if these properties are not within the normal range, it is surely a matter of concern. Urinalysis is the process of analyzing a sample of urine to find out its macroscopic as well as microscopic properties. Urine is can be collected at any random time and no special precautions are needed. The sample is collected in a cup and can be given for testing. In some cases, it is required that the urine sample be collected first thing in the morning to obtain a concentrated sample for testing.

A direct visual observation of urine can be made. Normal and fresh urine is clear and has a pale to dark yellow or amber coloration. A healthy man puts out about 750 to 2000 ml of urine per day. The urine may get clouded due to the presence of excessive cellular material or even protein in it. Microscopic analysis of urine will help us detect the presence of epithelial cells in urine. Epithelial cells come from epithelial tissues which are found in most of the inner cavities of the human body. The skin is also made up of epithelial tissues and the internal organs are also covered with them.

Three kinds of epithelial cells are present in a normal sample of urine. These are: renal tubular cells, squamous cells and transitional cells. The renal tubular cells are mostly present in the nephrons, which are located in the kidneys and are primarily responsible for carrying out most of the activities of the kidneys. These contain a round nucleus and may be present in urine in small numbers. However, if the patient is suffering from nephrotic syndrome a large number of these cells may be found. Squamous cells are present in the vagina, and also the outer regions of the urethra. Transitional cells are present in the ureter, the renal pelvis and the bladder. These cells have got larger nuclei but are smaller when compared to squamous cells. They also have more regular cell wall.

The presence of a few of the cells mentioned above is normal but if a larger quantity is detected, it may be an indication of some graver condition. Thus the amount of epithelial cells detected in a urine sample serves as a diagnosis and helps in indicating a problem. Further tests may be required to find out the exact nature of the condition but sometimes merely checking the number of epithelial cells will be enough to diagnose the problem. A large number of epithelial cells may indicate an infection or even a malignancy. An infected bladder will cause more transitional epithelial cells to be present in the urine sample. Any irregularity in the urine sample is an indication for you to get a check up immediately.

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